rozella bia³olica rozella bia³olica

eastern rosella

Platycercus Eximius

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The colors of parrots

Types of mutations

Sex-linked Recessive

Autosomal Recessive

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Combinations of mutations

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Autosomal Recessive Mutation

Melanistic (black)
1,0 czarny

This mutation turned up in Australia at the end of seventies last century. However its strength was quite troublesome. A weak vitality characterized the first specimen. Inbred breeding directed in willingness of quick profits in the nineties years led almost to extinction of this mutation. Only thanks to breeders which started mixing black specimen with wild birds naturally colored strengthening new mutation took place. Appearance of the melanistic mutation in Europe at the end of nineties in Great Britain is shrouded in mystery. Probably the “importation” eggs from Australia made a Scottish breeder Brian. At present “is say” amongst breeders that is found in Great Britain, Netherlands (Jan Postema), Denmark and Switzerland. In this mutation we observe significant rise in the production eumelanin what leads to general prevalence of black color. 1,0 czarny_opal Intensity of the black color similarly to red color in the opal mutation is different. Males have red color on the head and chest. Red color bird in the full dimension gets in the third or fourth year of life. Characteristic feature of the black females is a red band on forehead. Thanks to it is possible easily to distinguish bird sex. At females it is sometimes possible also to notice occasionally appearing single red plumage on the chest. The bird tail is nice dark-green color. Although recently in Australia started to appear specimens, which black color “spreads” also on the tail. Black rosella cheeks are white, also specimens which have a blue coating especially amongst young happens. czarny cynamon pastel . Similar effect of ”blue cheeks” although in weaker dimension occasionally occurred at wildly colored rosella. Plumage “shoulders” black rosella remained blue. Abdomen of males black rosella is speckled in “pearl” green and purple color. In this way a yellow color is displaced. The abdomen of females is practically entire black. Befall black birds, at which it is possible to observe yellow plumage on the head near the ear. Also this effect sometimes appears in split black mutation. Dark color paw black rosella are finished with black claws. Chicks of the black mutation are simple to distinguish, since their tongue ends are black, have also dark paws with black claws and black rachis in the tail. czarny cynamon Eastern Rosella black mutation in Europe is generally smaller bird in comparing to other mutations. Black rosella characterize also small vigor. Should suppose that will pass a little time before this mutation be strengthened particularly because the small amount of black birds leads to breeding in close kindred. In Australia thanks to selective breeding already obtained very pretty, practically quite black birds.

czarny cynamon

Currently many as a few interesting combinations of the black mutation were feed, among others from lutino, rubino and cinnamon. Some combinations of the black mutation with cinnamon are calling brown. Bird is colored light brown. Black lutino is nice yellow color with the reduced amount of color red on head and breast. Black rubino looks like black lutino with one difference that his abdomen is entire red or has yellow stains. In combination opal mutation and melanistic black color nicely contrasts with the red head and birds chest. This effect is weaker in females which have less intense red color. I suppose that very nice will look bird of the mutation combination: black, red and white winged – especially two factor.

Blue
niebieska

Even though the blue mutation was earlier observed in the nature a long time didn't manage to catch for breeding. Breeding blue rosella in Australia started from only two specimen in the nineties years. At present it is still rare and entire time breeding works on its long-lasting establishment. In Australia combinations of blue and red mutation were raise. In this combination a curiously colored bird was get with the white head and breast, with black wings and white-black tail.

In Europe (Germany) breeding works on this mutation started already in the eighties. They were led by a few breeders simultaneously: Joachim Richter (1982), Jentsch, Gerhard Rubesam. Unfortunately a small vigor caused the new mutation considerable problems. The entire bloodlines often fallen down. Newly leaving the inbred breeding and entering large amounts of normally colored birds into breeding let raise healthier, stronger blue specimen. Although in the beginning of new millennium the blue mutations started develop in Europe its price was huge. In 2005 year it cost about 10 thousand euro, at present price all the time is getting smaller. At low prices of the blue Crimson Rosella and Western Rosella mutation many breeders especially western Europe are trying through the cross-breeding interspecies (hybrids) ”move” this mutation on eastern rosella. Such unreasonable action leads to distortion of purity eastern rosella kind. Currently the transfer mutation among kinds is more frequent. Sometime happens that little acquainted breeder will ”cheaply” buy curious mutation rosella or other parrot which actually is an interspecies hybrid. Such hybrids are very often infertile and if reproduce a small vigor is characterizing their offspring.

Blue mutation eastern rosella is characterized by stopping the psittacin production. Colors red and yellow faded, green passed into the blue. The black color remained unchanged. The color of paws, claws, beak and eyes didn't change.

Blue mutation eastern rosella is characterized by stopping the psittacin production. Colors red and yellow faded, green passed into the blue. The black color remained unchanged. The color of paws, claws, beak and eyes didn't change.

Orange (Para-blue)
oran¿

The orange mutation belongs to the sequence of mutation para-blue (incomplete blue). It rose as a result of the modification blue mutation. Individual specimens of this mutation can differ in intensity of coloration. They are similar to rosella blue. The difference consists in the fact that orange mutation reduction psittacin was stopped on the level about 50%. So birds with large amount of blue still shows red reduced dye in places to orange and brighter yellow. The color of paws, beak, claws and eyes didn't change. Some breeders claim that chicks of this mutation it is possible to recognize in the nest by whitish powder. The orange mutation appears very occasionally. More often appears with the gene ino as Cremino.

oran¿

In 2009 I had young which looked like exemplary opal cremino; however even though left the hutch he didn't become independent and dead. I wrote on purpose that he looked like opal cremino, since happens that after the partition orange birds get red coloration. This process can sometimes be gradual and is able to last even a few years. How I earlier already mentioned orange mutation very rarely appears, therefore is included in so-called unestablished mutations. Therefore there are still problems with the ap propriate qualification. I personally think that it is recessive, although there are different votes. Some breeders think that it is dominate mutation, other claims that orange birds aren't a mutation but only single anomalies. From my experience, as well as from the information which I success gather from breeders from Western Europe, Australia and USA results, that orange mutation at eastern rosella belongs to the group of mutation para-blue with reference to the above should behave similarly to orange in Crimson Rosella. That is relation to the so-called wild color and other mutations is inheriting according to diagrams for the autosomal recessive mutation. A blue mutation constitutes the exception; it is caused by information about the blue mutation and para-blue included in alleles (variants) of the same gene. The orange and blue mutations are creating so-called multiple allelic series. It means that a combination of blue mutation isn’t possible with para-blue. It is caused with the fact that gene alleles responsible for these mutations are in the same place (locus) chromosome. oran¿ If the bird will have one allele of each gene mutation then its color will be indirect between blue and para-blue. The orange mutation is dominating over the blue mutation and therefore so-called blue orange looks phenotypically almost as orange. In the genotype such birds have per one gene of the blue mutation and para-blue. Order a blue or para-blue mutation occurred on account of inheriting way (recessive autosomal) are needed two genes handed over, per one from each of parents. Therefore blue orange in spite of its appearance is genotype in principle split to blue and orange mutation.

Below I’m describing variants of inheriting mutation para-blue in combination with the blue mutation:


normal/blue x normal/para-blue
25% normal
25% normal/blue
25% normal/para-blue
25% para-blue, blue


normal/blue x para-blue, blue
oran¿ 25% blue
25% normal/blue
25% normal/para-blue
25% para-blue, blue


normal/blue x para-blue
50% normal/para-blue
50% para-blue, blue


blue x normal/para-blue
50% normal/blue
50% para-blue, blue


blue x para-blue, blue
50% blue
50% para-blue, blue


blue x para-blue
100% para-blue, blue


normal/para-blue x para-blue, blue
25% para-blue
25% normal/blue
25% normal/para-blue
25% para-blue, blue


para-blue, niebieska x para-blue, blue
25% para-blue
50% para-blue, blue
25% blue


para-blue x para-blue, blue
50% para-blue
50% para-blue, blue


Above schemes of the heredity are confirmed at Crimson Rosella. In the case of Eastern Rosella they will be appropriate if the bird will genotype belonged to the group of mutation para-blue, and not only looked like for example an orange.



Dilute series (Pastel)
1,0 pastel

Mutations dilute in Europe started developed in Belgium in seventies years, however in Australia the pastel mutation turned up with the beginning of eightieth. In these mutations a significant regular reduction of eumelanin took place. Birds coat and other characteristic contours appearing at wild living rosella are smear, reduced to shades of grey and pastel. The color blue is lightened, and it is possible also to observe more colors of green and yellow. Eye, beak, paws and color claws didn't change. On account of plumages intensities it is possible to distinguish four and in principle three types of the mutation dilute.

 para czerwonych pasteli

To the first pastel group belong birds with 50% degree of the eumelanin reduction. Universally they are called pastels. They appear in Europe and Poland. These birds have darkest color of plumage. The second group is bird about brighter plumage – reduction eumelanin about 60-70%. They arise as a result of the selective aviculture about the 50% of the eumelanin reduction. Even though currently some breeders determine them as pastel Belgian or edged dilute they don’t constitute separate mutation. This pastel mutation characterized relatively simple possibility of distinguishing bird sex, since males towards females have brighter plumage. The experienced breeder can also ease distinguish young of this mutation right after hatch. Their fluff cover young colored as a default characterized by an increased density and visually is a whit longer.

Third and really the second mutation dilute are birds kept in Australia so-called Australian pastel, at which eumelanin reduction reaches about 80%. Their color of plumage was so lightened that it is possible to say that these birds are light green-yellow color with red head and breast, white cheeks and blue-grey “shoulders” and grey pinion.

1,0 suffused The last mutation dilute creates birds about 90% degree of the eumelanin reduction. They are brightest, look like lutino mutation. Of course their eyes remained black. Characteristic feature of this mutation are “dirty pinion”, with appearance similar to pinion of the mutation white wings. These birds in Europe universally are called: Black-Eyed Clear, Dark-Eyed Clear or Black-Eyed Yellow, Dark-Eyed Yellow and Yellow. Unfortunately in my opinion two first names (Black-Eyed Clear, Dark-Eyed Clear) are wrong, misleading. These names in other species of parrots are booked for the mutation recessive pied. There are names for the admission Black-Eyed Yellow or Dark-Eyed Yellow or simply Yellow. Eventually it is possible to call this mutation English pastel, since the first birds of this mutation were brought up in Great Britain. It throve for Mr. Peter Addison which in 1997got from normally colored couple three young of new mutation. Russell Pringle an Australian breeder with a big experience, an author of the book “A Guide to … Rosella and their mutations” determined birds of this mutation with Suffused name. And this name starts slowly displace other names mentioned above.

This year (2010) for friendly breeder from France Mr. Aurélien Pavot managed to get 6 young from couple: male of the mutation suffused plus, female of the combination mutation pastel cinnamon colors. Thanks to such connection birds, turned out that the dilute mutation: suffused and pastel doesn’t create multiple allelic series.

For the moment I don't have information whether Australian pastel mutation creates multiple allelic series with some of European pastel mutation. It would be possible to state crossing Australian mutations with European. However because of the import birds ban from Australia such a cross is rather unrealistic.

Besides above division we can also distinguish green pastel and yellow. Pastel ”yellow” is simply a pastel mutation which showed at the subspecies Eastern Rosella Golden –Mantled (Platycerus eximus cecilae). Pastel ”green” we can observe at the subspecies Tasmania Rosella (Platycerus eximus diamensis).

Recessive Lutino (NSL ino)

Recessive Lutino is very occasionally appearing. It is caused with small vigor of these mutation specimens. This bird difficulty reproduces; their red eyes are sensitive to the light. They look identical as specimens of the Lutino mutation coupled with the sex. NSL ino is not established mutation which turned up in Australia in the nineties years. In spite of Australian breeders efforts at present this mutation probably vanished. In Europe I didn’t found any information about it.

Golden Golden Mantled (Golden)
 gold

This mutation probably occurred in Europe – France in sixties of the last century. Then presumable disappeared. Again turn up in France at the end of eighties. Some breeders at first undermined the credibility of existence new mutation. They claimed that such colored birds arisen thanks to selective breeding of yellow specimen. Refute this thesis fact that similarly as in the opal mutation males of the golden mutation have a white band under wing. Even though this mutation is very spectacular currently is still rare. It is caused to the high price (about 1000 euro) and the way of inheritance. All mutations autosomal recessive towards wild colored birds and recessive mutations coupled with the sex and dominate are recessive in some way to the defeat. In order to raise genes mutated offspring of such a mutation must be handed over through both parents.  gold Unfortunately not always breeders care about proper selecting parental steam. Splits of recessive mutations which are propagated with casual partners are often brought up. It leads to disappearance of autosomal recessive mutations. In the golden mutation eumelanin is removed from the birds back and from the top of wings. Thanks to rosella is deprived of the characteristic coat. Eumelanin still appears in pinion and tail. Individual specimen can differ in intensity of the eumelanin reduction. Full golden colors of the back young birds are getting in the second year of life. Eyes, paws claws and beak kept their natural color.

Very interesting combination of this mutation with the black or red mutation should look.

At present a few breeders have a golden mutation in France and Germany.

 fallow
Fallow

This mutation is a very rare, transient mutation found occasionally currently only in Australia. Single specimens are kept from catching. Characterized by the fact that as a result of the eumelanin reduction birds have gently lightened plumage similarly to the cinnamon mutation. Other features of this mutation are red eyes like in lutino. The beak and legs of the parrot are gently lightened.

Dark Eye Clear (Black Eye Clear)

Name Black-Eye Clear (Dark-Eyed Clear) comes from the light color of bird plumage and his eyes color which from hatching chicks are dark. In parrots mutation about the name Black-Eye Clear was assigned recessive pied. How I earlier already mentioned in Europe Black-Eye Clear name not fortunate a mutation dilute was determined by about 90% degree of the eumelanin reduction which rose in England. From my knowledge results, that in Europe mutation BEC in Eastern Rosella didn't yet appeared. However in Australia we can find pied definite through Pringle Russell just as probable Black-Eye Clear.

Among recessive mutations is small number of mutations, which split we can recognize in the phenotype. Of course it only regards a certain, small percentage of all split of the given mutation. It is possible to observe such an effect among others black mutation rosella (yellow plumage on the head). Also split mutation part of Black-Eye Clear in phenotype has single small stains of yellow color in plumage. Other characteristic features of birds vaccinated for this mutation are snow-white pinion of course its regard not all split. Mutations Black-Eye Clear characterized significant step of pied. Birds of these motleys mutation appears in the full dimension on entire plumage and body.

 szek Exactly based on these characteristics mutation Black-Eye Clear, Pringle Russell admits that pied which turned up in Australia are representatives of the BEC mutation. These birds are very rare. This mutation wasn't still established. The way of inheritance is recessive. A considerable reduction eumelanin and red psittacin is characterizing these birds. It is possible to say that they are completely yellow birds with white pinion and “shoulders”, red forehead and with unevenly spilt brown-olive stains. Colors of these stains underwent reduction. They were stopped at the stage color dilute mutations. Bird eyes are dark. Claws and paw were lightened. With appearance very look like the European Black-Eye Clear mutation Murrumbidgee Rosella (platycercus flaveolus). The next proof of the BEC mutation existence in Australia is rosella which look like the European mutation white-winged. The difference is that Australian birds have snow-white pinion. At first these birds were regarded as the Australian mutation white-winged. However, when eastern rosella specimen turned up in Australia looking identical as white-winged European, then part of breeders reached a conclusion, that birds about snow-white pinion according to guidelines for the mutation BEC is exactly split of this mutation.

© Pawe³ Paw³owski
A.D. 2010
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